References From the Medical Literature

For the best, most up-to-date references, go to


The references on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication effects on ligaments and tendons

  • 1] Warden SJ: Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors: beneficial or detrimental for athletes with acute musculoskeletal injuries? Sports Med 2005;35(4):271-283.
  • [1] Elder CL, Dahners LE, Weinhold PS: A cyclooxygenase-inhibitor impairs ligament healing in the rat. Am J Sports Med 2001;29(6):801-810.
  • [1] Sun R, Gimbel HV, Liu S, , Guo D, Hollenberg MD.: Effect of diclofenac sodium and dexamethasone on cultured human Tenon’s capsule fibroblasts. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers 1999; 30(5):382-388.
  • [1] Marsolais D, Cote CH, Frenette J: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug reduces neutrophil and macrophage accumulation but does not improve tendon regeneration. Lab Invest 2003;83(7):991-999.
  • [1] Dahners LE, Mullis BH: Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on bone formation and soft-tissue healing. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2004;12(3):139-143.
  • [1] Riley GP, Cox M, Harrall RL, S. clements and B. L Hazleman: Inhibition of tendon cell proliferation and matrix glycosaminoglycan synthesis by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in vitro. J Hand Surg 2001;26(3):224-228
  • [1] Cohen DB, Kawamura S, Ehteshami J, and Scott A. Rodeo: Indomethacin and celecoxib impair rotator cuff tendon-to-bone healing. Am J Sports Med 2006;34(3):362-369
  • [1] Elder CL, Dahners LE, Weinhold PS: A cyclooxygenase-inhibitor impairs ligament healing in the rat. Am J Sports Med 2001;29(6):801-810.
  • [1] Stovitz, S.D., Johnson, R.J., NSAIDs and Musculoskeletal Treatment, What Is the Clinical Evidence the Physician and Sportsmedicine - vol 31 - no. 1 - january 2003

The references on the effects of steroids on the road of ligaments and tendons

  • [1] Wan Nar Wong M., Nei Tang Y., Kwong Man Lee S., Sai Chuen Fu B., Pui Chan B. Kai Ming Chan C. Effect of Dexamethasone on Cultured Human Tenocytes and Its Reversibility by Platelet-Derived Growth Factor J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003;85:1914-1920.
  • [1] Wan Nar Wong M., Nei Tang Y., Chuen Fu, S., Man Lee K, Ming Chan K.Triamcinolone Suppresses Human Tenocyte Cellular Activity and Collagen Synthesis Clinical Orthopaedics And Related Research 2004 Number 421, pp. 277–281
  • [1] Chia-Hsin Chen, John V. Marymont, Mao-Hsiung Huang, Mark Geyer and Zong-Ping Luo, Xuhui Liu Mechanical Strain Promotes Fibroblast Gene Expression in Presence of Corticosteroid Connective Tissue Research, 48:65–69, 2007
  • [1] Wan Nar Wong M., Yin Nei Tang Y Kwong Man Lee S., Sai Chuen Fu B., Glucocorticoids suppress proteoglycan production by human tenocytes Acta Orthopaedica 2005; 76 (6): 927–931 927
  • [1] Kennedy J, Willis RB: The effects of local steroid injections on tendons: a biomechanical and microscopic correlative study. Am J Sports Med 1976;4:11-21
  • [1] Gaujoux-Viala C, Dougados M, Gossec L Efficacy and safety of steroid injections for shoulder and elbow tendonitis: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Ann Rheum Dis. 2009 Dec;68(12):1843-9. Epub 2008 Dec 3.
  • [1] Arrel B., Goodyear Smith F., Corticosteroid injections for painful shoulder: a meta-analysis. 512 March 2005 British Journal of general practice, volume 55, pages 224 -228
  • [1] Alvarez CM, Litchfield R., Jackowski D., Griffin S., Kirkley A. A prospective, double-blind, randomized clinical trial comparing subacromial injection of dexamethasone and Xylocaine to Xylocaine alone in chronic rotator cuff tendinosis. 2, February 2005, American Journal of sports medicine, volume 33, pages 255 to 262
  • [1] White RH, Paull DM, Fleming KW Rotator cuff tendinitis: comparison of subacromial injection of a long acting corticosteroid versus oral indomethacin therapy. 3 June 1986, Journal of rheumatology, volume 13, pages 608 – 613
  • [1] Vecchio PC, Hazelman BL, King RH. A double-blind trial comparing subacromial methylprednisolone and Lignocaine in acute rotator cuff tendinitis. 8 August 1993, British Journal of rheumatology, volume 32, pages 743 – 745

Reeves KD, Hassanein K. Randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Mar;6(2):68-74, 77-80
For a summary, go to

(This is a good basic review of the principles of prolotherapy, and presents good references from the medical literature)

  • -Prolotherapy for musculoskeletal pain. Donna Alderman, DO. Practical Pain Management, January/February 2007. (The article can be downloaded in PDF format minus all the interesting illustrations, if you Google this title.)
  • – Prolo your pain away! Ross A. Hauser, M.D., Marion A. Hauser, M.S., Beulah Land Press 2004 (A book on the subject, easy to read and understand, many religious statements.)